Alpha hydroxy acid (AHA)
- an exfoliant derived from fruit and milk sugars such as glycolic acid produced from sugar cane and lactic acid produced from milk.
- a mild form of peel that uses lactic, fruit or glycolic acids to help the skin look smoother. To remove deeper lines and sun damage a deeper peel is required.
Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs)
- water soluble compounds used in chemical peels and skin care products like moisturizers, cleansers, eye creams, sunscreen and foundations.
Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA)
- antioxidant increasing the production of glutathione and boosting toxic substances dissolving in the liver
- used in preventing age-related diseases
- found in meats and vegetables such as spinach.
Ascorbic Acid – Also known as vitamin C
- essential vitamin for the formation of collagen
- free radical scavenger which helps minimize the damaging effects of UV radiation
- acts as a tyrosinase inhibitor and decreases the amount of pigment produces in the skin
- substances and vitamins used in cosmetic products for their inhibiting properties, preventing oxidation and rancidity generated by oxygen or peroxide
- they act as anti-aging ingredients by fighting free radicals
- naturally occurring skin lightening agent used to treat pigmented lesions, rosacea, and hyperpigmentaion.
Beta Hydroxy Acids (BHA’s)
- lipid soluble substances used in acne therapy for oily skin due to their exfoliating properties and in the prevention of clogged pores
- most known BHA is salicylic acid.
- in cosmetics BHA usually refers to salicylic acid. BHA is best used on oily skin, while AHAs are suited to thickened, sun-damaged skin.
- a protein that comes from the bacterium Clostridium botulin.
- An injectable purified protein that blocks muscle contraction and is commonly used to reduce the appearance of wrinkles.
- substance that keeps skin moisturized, secreted by human body or synthetically
- substance secreted by human body, but decreasing in content with age, which leads to skin’s dehydration and, eventually, wrinkles
- ingredient in hair care products for smoothing hair cuticle and in skin care products as moisturizing creams and anti-aging lotions.
- compound consisting of a peptide (small fragment of protein) and copper atom
- known to benefit in tissue regeneration therapy
- used in treating wounds and skin lesions
- stimulates elastin and collagen synthesis, has anti-inflammatory properties
- prevents oxidation
- used in skin care treatments as a dead skin and wrinkle removal
- used after chemical peels and microdermabrasion as skin calmer.
- cosmetic product destined to artificially tan skin diminishing, thus, risks of sunburn and others
- Causes a chemical reaction when in contact to skin and leading to a darkening effect resembling natural tan
- full chemical name is dimethyl-amino-ethanol
- natural substance facilitating the synthesis of a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, and of phosphatidylcholine, essential component of cell membranes
- used as skin firming agent and in age-related disturbances.
- commonly oily substances which reduce epidermal dehydration and assist in the maintenance of skin barrier function
- also known as hydroxyacetic acid
- substance with exfoliating properties
- used in cosmetic abrasive procedures for dead skin removal and rejuvenation in concentrations of 20%-80% or in at-home kits in lower concentrations, less than 10%
- Dissolving the outer layer of the skin it may reduce acne scaring, fine lines and wrinkles, hyper-pigmentation also improving other skin conditions
Green Tea Extract
Also known as: Camelia Sinensis or Camelia sinensis extract
- extract rich in bioflavonoids, especially polyphenol* reputed for its effectiveness in fighting free radicals, as well as various types of cancer and tumors
- it works as a pathogenic bacteria inhibitor and friendly bacteria stimulator
- water soluble substances with high absorption capabilites, attracting water from the sourrounding atmosphere or underlying epidermis
- often added to moisturizers to prevent evaporation and assist skin barrier function
- is found naturally occurring in the skin as a glycosaminoglycan
- it has the ability to hold water 100x fold
- is commonly used in skin care preparations as a humectant and in dermal fillers to plump hollow facial regions and treat lines & folds.
- Reduces redness and inflammation
Hydrolyzed ascorbic acid
- substance deeply absorbed into skin cells stimulating collagen synthesis
- it works as a powerful antioxidant
- it is the gold standard in skin lightening agents
- commonly used for the treatment of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma and other pigmentation disorders.
- it is available OTC and prescription
- synthetic variant of Coenzyme Q10
Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate
- derivative of vitamin C stable in water based formulations
- not as potent as pure L-Ascrobic Acid but exerts similar effects
- see vitamin B3
- barrier enhancing agent which is used to hydrate the skin and decrease facial redness.
- often used post surgery to address wounds, bruising, and burns.
- ts. compound consisting of amino acids chemically linked together by peptide collagen levels
- work as muscle relaxers and reduce the muscle contraction by inhibiting bonds
- most popular cosmeceutical peptide is Matrixyl or Pal-KTTKS
- regulate and boost acetylcholine binding
- chemically known as palmitoyl-pentapepetide 3
- cosmetic active ingredient derived from a modified chain of five amino acids
- effectively improves wrinkle appearance without causing skin irritation
- See Vitamin B5
- See Vitamin K
- See Vitamin B6
- derived synthetically from a variety of sources
- used in lower concentrations as an antiseptic and in higher concentrations remove varying layers of the skin
- can be used in superficial and deep chemical peels
- suitable for acne prone and prematurely aged skins
- alcohol form of vitamin A
- is an essential vitamin for the skin
- commonly used in topical skin care for treatment of photoaged skin
- decreases the appearance of fine lines, dryness and sun damaged skin
- decreases pigmentation by acting as a tyrosinase inhibitor and exfoliating preexisting pigmented cells. It stimulates cell renewal thus contributing to an over all improvement in skin texture
- fat-soluble antioxidant vitamin
- the dietary form of vitamin A
- used in cosmetic and medical products for skin use in the treatment acne and as anti-aging ingredients
- well absorbed into skin and a powerful collagen booster, resulting into younger and healthier overall appearance
- organic carboxylic acid with crystalline configuration also known as Beta Hydroxy Acid (BHA)
- used as a food preservative, but also in the treatment of eczema due to its properties of dissolving layers of derma
- key ingredient in various skin care products destined for acne, warts or keratosis pilaris treatment
- derived form soybeans
- assists in moisturizing and conditioning the skin
- pale yellow, odorless and solid chemical compound soluble in carbon disulfide
- effectively treats seborrheic dermatitis and inflammatory pimples due to its germicidal action
Tea Tree Oil
- natural antiseptic agent which has strong antibacterial properties
- commonly used to treat acne and is used in many skin care products
- physical sunscreen
- absorbs UV radiation and releases it as heat
- assists in the prevention of UV induced sunburn and potential forms of skin cancers
- prevention and treatment of infections
TMRs (Topical Muscle Relaxers)
Also known as: Topical Muscle Relaxers
- compounds supposedly working on the neurotransmitters responsible for muscle contraction
- their action is directed from the exterior towards the interior of the dermis, improving the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines, such as laugh lines, crow’s feet, wrinkles on forehead, neck or chicks etc.
- also destined to improve stretch marks on the body
Also known as: All-Trans Retinoic Acid
- tretinoin is a derivate of vitamin A and also known as All-Trans Retinoic Acid or ATRA
- See retinoic acid
- two of the most effective antioxidants on the cosmetic market
- regenerates reduced tocopherol levels in the skin
- fight free radicals in the environment to help skin rejuvenate and regain an youthful appearance
- help reduce wrinkles and fine lines.
- skin nutrient essential in maintaining and repairing dermal structure
- used in skin care products designed for acne treatment and fine lines
- comes in many different forms and is available OTC (Retinol) and prescription (Retinoic Acid/Tretinoin)
- also know as Niacinamide
- water soluble, stable vitamin
- extremely well tolertated by the skin and is known to improve skin barrier function
- decreases the signs of photoaged skins such as hyperpigmentation texture irregularities and irritation
- also known as Panthenol
- commonly used in skin care formulations due to its excellent moisturizing properties.
- helps soothe and restore irritated skin due to its anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties
- important to the multiplication of cells and supports the function of healthy skin
- is required for the normal functioning of cells
- assists in the reduction of acne
- water-soluble vitamin with antioxidant and preservative properties
- helps the body heal and repair damaged tissues
- essential compound in the formation of collagen, protecting the body from bruising and blood clotting
- protects against UVB induced erythema and sunburn cell formation and decreases the risk of developing some forms of skin cancer
- prevents the production of pigment through tyrsoinase inhibiting cababilites
- vitamin belonging to the tocopherols group
- works as antioxidant preventing peroxide formation
- decreases the formation of scar tissues outside and inside the body
- helps cicatrize wounds
- strengthens the integrity of blood capillaries and assists in the reduction of dark under eye circles
- maintains the cell membrane stable through cellular stabilization processes
- it absorbs ultraviolet light
- used as active ingredient in sunscreen creams and lotions protecting against sunburn.